How To Grow Alfalfa in Australia

Preparing for Alfalfa Cultivation

Before embarking on your alfalfa cultivation journey, it's important to make the necessary preparations to ensure successful growth. This section will guide you through selecting the right location, soil preparation and requirements, and choosing the right seeds for your alfalfa plants.

Selecting the Right Location

When choosing a location for your alfalfa cultivation, it's essential to consider a few key factors. Alfalfa thrives in full sun, so select an area of your garden that receives at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight each day. Adequate sunlight is crucial for the optimal growth and development of your alfalfa plants.

Additionally, ensure that the chosen location has well-draining soil to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to root rot. Alfalfa prefers soil with a pH level between 6 and 7, so consider conducting a soil test to determine the pH level and make any necessary adjustments.

Soil Preparation and Requirements

Preparing the soil for alfalfa cultivation is crucial for creating a favourable growing environment. Start by removing any weeds, rocks, or debris from the designated area. This helps to minimise competition for nutrients and space. You can also consider mulching around the alfalfa plants to suppress weed growth and retain moisture. Learn more about the benefits of mulching in our article on how to grow yam beans in Australia.

Alfalfa thrives in well-drained soil, so ensure that the soil is loose and well-aerated. This can be achieved by tilling the soil to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. Incorporating organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, into the soil prior to planting can also improve its fertility and drainage.

Choosing the Right Seeds

Choosing the right seeds is vital for successful alfalfa cultivation. Look for certified organic alfalfa seeds from reputable suppliers. There are different varieties of alfalfa available, each with its own characteristics and suitability for different climates. Consider factors such as your local climate and the intended use of the alfalfa when selecting the variety.

It's important to note that alfalfa seeds have a protective coating that can inhibit germination. To enhance germination rates, some gardeners opt to scarify the seeds by lightly scratching the surface or soaking them in water overnight. However, this step is not necessary for all varieties.

By selecting the right location, preparing the soil adequately, and choosing suitable seeds, you are setting the foundation for successful alfalfa cultivation. In the next sections, we will delve into the planting and growing process of alfalfa, so you can continue your journey towards a thriving alfalfa harvest.

Planting and Growing Alfalfa

When it comes to planting and growing alfalfa, there are several key factors to consider. In this section, I will guide you through the planting time and season, sowing techniques, and proper watering and irrigation methods for successful alfalfa cultivation.

Planting Time and Season

The ideal time to plant alfalfa in Australia is during the cooler months, generally from late autumn to early spring. This timing allows the plants to establish themselves before the onset of hot weather. It's important to note that alfalfa prefers a temperate climate and may struggle in areas with extreme heat or cold.

Sowing Techniques for Alfalfa

Before sowing alfalfa, ensure that the soil is well-prepared and free from weeds. Alfalfa seeds are relatively small, so a fine seedbed is essential for proper germination. You can sow the seeds directly into the prepared soil using a broadcasting technique or by using a seed drill for more precise placement.

When broadcasting the seeds, aim for a seeding rate of 15 to 20 kilograms per hectare. This rate can be adjusted based on your specific requirements and the soil conditions. For best results, lightly rake or roll the soil after sowing to ensure good seed-to-soil contact.

Proper Watering and Irrigation

Alfalfa requires adequate moisture for optimal growth and establishment. After sowing, it's crucial to keep the soil consistently moist until the seeds germinate. This can be achieved through regular and light irrigation. Be careful not to overwater, as this can lead to issues such as rotting or poor germination.

Once the alfalfa plants have established, they become more drought-tolerant. However, it's still important to provide sufficient irrigation during dry periods to ensure healthy growth. Aim to provide approximately 25 millimeters of water per week, either through natural rainfall or supplemental irrigation.

Monitoring the moisture levels in the soil is crucial to avoid under or overwatering. Regularly check the soil moisture using a moisture meter or by feeling the soil with your fingers. If the top few inches of soil feel dry, it's time to water.

By following these planting and growing techniques, you are on your way to cultivating healthy and thriving alfalfa plants. In the next section, we will explore the essential aspects of caring for alfalfa plants to ensure their continued growth and productivity. Stay tuned!

If you're interested in learning how to grow other vegetables and herbs in Australia, check out our articles on how to grow lentils, and how to grow broad beans.

Caring for Alfalfa Plants

To ensure the healthy growth and productivity of your alfalfa plants, proper care is essential. This involves providing the necessary fertilization and nutrient requirements, implementing effective weed control and pest management, and practising correct techniques for pruning and harvesting alfalfa.

Fertilisation and Nutrient Requirements

Alfalfa plants have specific nutrient requirements that should be met to promote optimal growth. Before planting, it's advisable to conduct a soil test to determine the nutrient levels and pH of your soil. Based on the results, you can make informed decisions about the appropriate fertilisers and amendments needed.

Alfalfa generally requires high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Organic fertilisers such as compost or well-rotted manure can be applied before planting or as a top dressing during the growing season. Additionally, using a balanced organic fertiliser specifically formulated for legume crops can help meet the plant's nutrient needs.




60-120 kg/ha


40-60 kg/ha


90-150 kg/ha

Regular soil testing and monitoring of the plant's health will help you adjust the fertilization program as necessary. For more information on fertilization techniques for specific crops, refer to our article on how to grow lentils in Australia.

Weed Control and Pest Management

Weed control is crucial to ensure the healthy growth of alfalfa plants. Weeds compete with the alfalfa for nutrients, water, and sunlight, which can significantly affect its productivity. Implementing effective weed control measures is essential to minimize weed competition.

There are several methods of weed control that can be employed. These include hand weeding, mulching, and the use of organic herbicides. It's important to note that herbicides should be used judiciously and according to label instructions to avoid any adverse effects on the alfalfa plants.

Pest management is another crucial aspect of caring for alfalfa plants. Common pests that can affect alfalfa include aphids, leafhoppers, and alfalfa weevils. Regular scouting of the plants can help detect pest infestations early on. Integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, such as introducing beneficial insects or using organic pest control methods, can be employed to manage pest populations effectively.

For more information on pest management techniques for legume crops, refer to our article in our A-Z Growing Guides.

Pruning and Harvesting Alfalfa

Pruning and harvesting alfalfa require careful consideration to maximise yield and ensure continued growth. Alfalfa can be cut multiple times during the growing season, with each cutting being referred to as a "harvest." Proper timing of harvest is crucial to maintain the nutrient content and quality of the alfalfa.

The first harvest typically occurs when the alfalfa reaches early bloom stage, which is when approximately 10% of the plants have started to flower. Subsequent harvests can be done every 28-35 days, depending on the growth rate and weather conditions.

When harvesting, it's important to cut the alfalfa at a height of about 5-7 cm above the ground to allow for regrowth. This helps maintain a healthy stand and ensures future harvests. Proper drying and curing techniques should be followed to prevent mould formation and preserve the nutritional quality of the harvested alfalfa.

By providing the necessary nutrients, managing weeds and pests effectively, and following proper pruning and harvesting techniques, you can ensure the success of your alfalfa crop. 

Tips and Tricks for Successful Alfalfa Cultivation

Growing alfalfa can be a rewarding experience for organic gardeners looking to add a nutritious and versatile crop to their home garden. To ensure successful cultivation of alfalfa in Australia, here are some tips and tricks that can help you along the way.

Benefits of Mulching

Mulching is an essential practice that offers several benefits when cultivating alfalfa. Applying a layer of mulch around the base of the plants helps to conserve moisture in the soil, reduce weed growth, and regulate soil temperature. Organic mulches, such as straw or grass clippings, work well for alfalfa. Additionally, mulching can help improve soil structure, enhance nutrient retention, and contribute to overall soil health. 

Companion Planting with Alfalfa

Companion planting is an effective technique that involves growing compatible plants in close proximity to provide mutual benefits. When it comes to alfalfa, some suitable companion plants include yam beans, broad beans, green beans, mung beans, soya beans, French beans, and chickpeas. These plants can help improve soil nitrogen levels through a process called nitrogen fixation, which enhances the growth and health of alfalfa. Companion planting can also help attract beneficial insects and deter pests. 

Troubleshooting Common Issues

While alfalfa is generally a resilient crop, it can still face certain challenges. Here are some common issues that you may encounter while cultivating alfalfa and how to address them:

  • Weed competition: Regular weeding is essential to prevent weeds from competing with alfalfa for nutrients and sunlight. Mulching can also help suppress weed growth.
  • Pest infestations: Keep an eye out for pests such as aphids, leafhoppers, or armyworms. Implementing integrated pest management techniques, such as using insecticidal soaps or attracting beneficial insects, can help control pest populations.
  • Disease outbreaks: Some diseases that can affect alfalfa include crown rot, leaf spot, and downy mildew. Proper crop rotation, good drainage, and maintaining optimal plant health can help prevent disease outbreaks.
  • Overwatering or poor drainage: Alfalfa prefers well-draining soil, so it's important to avoid overwatering and ensure proper drainage to prevent root rot or waterlogged conditions.

By applying these tips and tricks, you can increase the chances of successful alfalfa cultivation in your home garden. Remember to monitor your plants regularly, provide proper care, and address any issues promptly. With patience and dedication, you'll soon enjoy the abundant benefits of growing your own alfalfa. If you want to know more about growing plants and herbs in Australia, you may visit our A-Z guides!

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